Since 1867

Official Languages in Canada

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Students and teachers at the Morrin College around 1891
1868

Morrin College is the first English-language institute of higher education in Québec City

The college is built in the heart of the heart of Old Québec, on the former site of an old defensive structure called the Royal Redoubt, which served as a military barracks and then a prison before being demolished to make way for the current building.
1871

New Brunswick passes the Common Schools Act, 1871

The Common Schools Act effectively removes public funding from separate Acadian schools.
St. Boniface, Red River Settlement
1871

The Collège de Saint-Boniface becomes one of the first official institutions of Manitoba

Founded by Monseigneur Alexandre Taché in 1855, the Collège de Saint-Boniface was a pivotal point, a protector and a promoter of French life and culture.
1871

The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba passes the province’s first education legislation

Catholic and Protestant school systems are completely separated.
Main building at Université Sainte-Anne, Church Point, Nova Scotia.
1890

The Université Sainte-Anne is built in Nova Scotia

This educational institution is the only French-language university in the province and the first in the Maritimes.
Flag of Manitoba
November 16, 1896

In Manitoba, bilingual schooling is authorized where numbers warrant

Called the Laurier-Greenway Compromise, this agreement seeks to resolve the controversial issue of religious schools in the province. Laurier and Greenway are the names of the Liberal Prime Minister of Canada at the time, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and the Liberal Premier of Manitoba, Thomas Greenway.
Indian School children, Mission at Hay River, N.W.T. 
1901

English-language education is made compulsory in the Northwest Territories

In the early 20th century, the population of the Northwest Territories is predominantly of British descent, but there is still a strong Métis presence.
1902

Instruction in French is partially permitted in Nova Scotia

Acadian children in Nova Scotia are now allowed to receive instruction in French during the first half of elementary school.
1905

The Saskatchewan Act and the Alberta Act allow the limited use of French as a language of public instruction

Francophones of various origins settle in the newly created province of Saskatchewan, establishing numerous small villages.
The first "Campus Saint-Jean" at Pincher Creek in Alberta.
1908

The Juniorat Saint-Jean is founded in Pincher Creek

The Juniorat Saint-Jean in Pincher Creek, Alberta, is a school run by Oblate priests for young men studying theology in French.
Postal card of the Monument National in Ottawa (Ontario) in 1910
1910

The Association canadienne-française d’Éducation de l’Ontario is founded

The Association is created following a meeting of delegates at the Monument National in Ottawa.
Poster on the battle of the hatpins
January 4, 1916

The Battle of the Hatpins breaks out in Ontario

Guigues Elementary School in Ottawa is taken over by French-speaking mothers and teachers.
 Collège Mathieu
December 14, 1918

The Association des commissaires d’écoles franco-canadiens is created in Saskatchewan

The Association is founded at a time when the threat to French-language education is at its highest.
1927

The Ontario government stops enforcing Regulation 17

Once again, French becomes the primary language of instruction in Franco-Ontarian schools.
Joseph Oreux Pilon is the first president of the Association
1935

Franco-Albertans establish the Association des commissaires d’écoles de langue française de l’Alberta

The Association des commissaires d’écoles de langue française de l’Alberta elect Joseph-Oreux Pilon, a businessman involved in the community, as its first president.
1937

The Acadian Education Association is officially recognized at the 10th National Acadian Convention in Memramcook, New Brunswick

Although it was created in 1936 in Campbellton, New Brunswick, the Acadian Education Association will not officially begin its work until 1938.
During the construction of the Arts building (around 1963). From left to right, Eric LeBlanc, Abbaey Landry, Père Clément Cormier, Camille LeBlanc.
1963

The French-language Université de Moncton is founded

The Université de Moncton has campuses located in the three main French-speaking regions of the province: the northwest, northeast and southeast of New Brunswick.
1964

The Alberta School Act is amended

The amendment permits at least one hour of French instruction a day.
Duff Roblin's portrait
1967

Bill 59 regarding French-language instruction in Manitoba is passed

This bill allows French-language instruction for up to one half of the school day.
1968

A French section is created within a public school in Coquitlam, British Columbia

In response to numerous demands from the public, the Ministry of Education authorizes the experiment.
1968

Saskatchewan amends its Education Act

The Education Act is amended to allow French language education, which had been banned in 1892.
Portrait de Edward Richard Schreyer
1970

In Manitoba, French is restored as a language of instruction, a status it had held until 1916

Premier Edward Schreyer’s New Democratic government passes Bill 113 to make this happen.
1970

The Government of Canada creates the Official Languages in Education Program

Under this program, the government provides financial support for minority language education and second-language instruction.
Government of Manitoba's logo
1974

Manitoba establishes the Bureau de l’éducation française

This initiative responds to demands by the Société franco-manitobaine and by French-speaking parents.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1977

A group of parents forms an organization called Canadian Parents for French

This national network of volunteers seeks to encourage the learning of French as a second language.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1977

The Alberta branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is one of the first three provincial branches of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1977

The Ontario branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is one of the first three provincial branches of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1977

The Prince Edward Island branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is one of the first three provincial branches of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Logo of Campus Saint-Jean
1977

The Collège universitaire Saint-Jean becomes a faculty at the University of Alberta

After decades as an independent post-secondary educational institution, Collège Saint-Jean is granted faculty status at the University of Alberta.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1978

The British Columbia and Yukon branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the fourth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
1980

Prince Edward Island amends its School Act

The amended School Act reflects the provisions of section 23 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, officially adopted in 1982.
1980

Saskatchewan’s Ministry of Education creates the French Education Branch

The Branch is responsible for establishing and improving French-language education programs.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1980

The Saskatchewan branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the fifth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
1981

Nova Scotia adopts a new Education Act

The new Education Act is passed, giving Acadians in Nova Scotia the right to be provided with French first-language education.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1981

The Manitoba branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the sixth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1983

The Newfoundland and Labrador branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the seventh provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1983

The Quebec branch of the Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the eighth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
1984

A French-language school opens its doors in Newfoundland and Labrador

École Sainte-Anne is the first French-language school in the province.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1984

The Nova Scotia branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the tenth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
Canadian Parents for French logo
1984

The New Brunswick branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the ninth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.
École Émilie-Tremblay
1984

Creation of Yukon’s first French language school

The school is named after Émilie Tremblay, who, in 1894, became one of the first Francophone women from Quebec to make the long journey to Dawson City, Yukon.
Students at the Collège de l’Acadie
1988

The Collège de l’Acadie is founded

This French-language community college is established in Nova Scotia under provincial legislation in 1988 and opens its doors to students in 1992.
Logo of the La Cité - Université francophone in Regina (Saskatchewan)
1989

The Language Institute building is inaugurated at the University of Regina in Saskatchewan

Today, the building houses the University of Regina’s La Cité universitaire francophone and BAC (Bachelor of Education) Program offices.
Commission scolaire de langue française's logo
1990

Prince Edward Island gives the Commission scolaire de langue française the right to administer French-language schools

The Commission scolaire de langue française is now responsible for governing French-language education.
1991

Nova Scotia adopts a new School Boards Act

The Act enables the creation of French-language school boards.
1993

The first French-language educational program on Baffin Island is established

The French-language educational program is established by the Baffin Divisional Board of Education.
Commission scolaire francophone du Yukon
1993

The Commission scolaire francophone du Yukon opens for business

The Commission scolaire francophone du Yukon, the only school board in Yukon, is responsible for French as a first language education throughout the territory.
1994

The Division scolaire franco-manitobaine begins operations

The Division scolaire franco-manitobaine was created when Bill 34 was passed in July 1993 to amend the Public Schools Act. The Commission scolaire franco-manitobaine was formed shortly thereafter.
June 24, 1994

The first Fransaskois school board elections are held

Elections are held in eight communities, from Prince Albert to Gravelbourg.
1996

Recognition of language rights makes progress in Newfoundland and Labrador

The province recognizes the right of Franco-Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to their own French-language school board.