Since 1867

Official Languages in Canada

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Portrait of Louis Riel

The Red River Rebellion, a popular democratic movement led by Louis Riel, leads to the creation of Manitoba

This is the new Canadian government’s first major crisis since Confederation.
St. Boniface, Red River Settlement

The Collège de Saint-Boniface becomes one of the first official institutions of Manitoba

Founded by Monseigneur Alexandre Taché in 1855, the Collège de Saint-Boniface was a pivotal point, a protector and a promoter of French life and culture.
St-Boniface Hospital in 1910

The Grey Nuns, a Francophone religious order, found the St-Boniface Hospital in Manitoba

The first hospital in Western Canada starts out with only four beds to meet the health care needs of the people of the new province of Manitoba.

The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba passes the province’s first education legislation

Catholic and Protestant school systems are completely separated.
May 27, 1871

Manitoba’s first French-language weekly newspaper, Le Métis, is published

Lawyer Joseph Royal, who bought the presses and equipment in St. Cloud, Minnesota, for $500 is the man responsible for the publication of Le Métis.
Louis Riel addressing the jury during his trial for treason.
November 16, 1885

Métis leader Louis Riel is executed

Louis Riel is at the centre of the Red River and North-West rebellions.
July 17, 1887

The Union nationale métisse Saint-Joseph du Manitoba is created

It is the leading Métis organization in Canada.
Manitoba flag

An important turning point in the history of Manitoba: English is declared the province’s only official language

During the same period, a bill to abolish religious duality is passed.
Studio portrait of Mr. McCarthy

English becomes the sole official language of the Northwest Territories

An ordinance and a resolution make English the only language permitted in schools and in the legislative assembly.
Flag of Manitoba
November 16, 1896

In Manitoba, bilingual schooling is authorized where numbers warrant

Called the Laurier-Greenway Compromise, this agreement seeks to resolve the controversial issue of religious schools in the province. Laurier and Greenway are the names of the Liberal Prime Minister of Canada at the time, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and the Liberal Premier of Manitoba, Thomas Greenway.
Mgr Adélard Langevin, founding member and first president of the Société historique de Saint-Boniface
September 4, 1902

The Société historique de Saint-Boniface is founded

The organization’s mission is to preserve the richness of French-Canadian heritage.
May 20, 1913

La Liberté is first published in Manitoba

La Liberté is founded by Monseigneur Adélard Langevin, Archbishop of St. Boniface.
March 10, 1916

The Thornton Act is passed, abolishing the bilingual school system in Manitoba

The bilingual school system is abolished and, along with it, French-language education.
Théâtre Cercle Molière Logo

The Cercle Molière theatre company makes its debut

Manitoba’s Cercle Molière is the oldest continuously running theatre company in Canada.
October 22, 1926

The first meeting of the secret society of the Commandeurs de l’Ordre de Jacques-Cartier is held in Ontario

The society is a reflection of a certain amount of frustration among French Canadians who feel that their rights are being ignored.
CKSB offices

Radio station CKSB begins broadcasting to Manitoba and Western Ontario

CKSB is Canada’s first French-language radio station outside of Quebec.

Villa Youville, a French-language seniors’ lodging and care home, opens

Villa Youville is a not-for-profit community corporation.
Stamp made for the Pan-American Games, Winnipeg, 1967

Canada hosts the Pan American Games for the first time

From July 23 to August 6, Winnipeg, Manitoba, hosts the 5th Pan American Games.
Duff Roblin's portrait

Bill 59 regarding French-language instruction in Manitoba is passed

This bill allows French-language instruction for up to one half of the school day.
Portrait de Edward Richard Schreyer

In Manitoba, French is restored as a language of instruction, a status it had held until 1916

Premier Edward Schreyer’s New Democratic government passes Bill 113 to make this happen.
The Festival's mascot

The Festival du Voyageur is created for Manitoba’s Centennial celebrations

This celebration spotlights the importance of Franco-Manitobans’ contribution to the province’s development.
Saint-Boniface City Hall in 1970

St. Boniface is incorporated into the City of Winnipeg

St. Boniface ceases to exist as an independent city and becomes a ward in the Manitoban capital.
Government of Manitoba's logo

Manitoba establishes the Bureau de l’éducation française

This initiative responds to demands by the Société franco-manitobaine and by French-speaking parents.
Logo du Centre culturel franco-manitobain

The Centre culturel franco-manitobain opens

The Centre plays an important role by featuring all forms of French-language artistic and cultural activities in the province of Manitoba.

In the Forest case, the Supreme Court of Canada rules that Manitoba’s Official Language Act is unconstitutional

This act declared English to be the only language of the registers and minutes of the legislature, courts and statutes of the province of Manitoba.
Franco-Manitoban flag

The Franco-Manitoban flag is unveiled

The flag’s design was chosen in a provincial competition organized by the Conseil jeunesse provincial.
Government of Manitoba's logo

The Government of Manitoba creates the French Language Services Secretariat

The Secretariat facilitates, guides and monitors all government department activity concerning French-language services.
Canadian Parents for French logo

The Manitoba branch of Canadian Parents for French is founded

It is the sixth provincial/territorial branch of the Canadian Parents for French network.

The Supreme Court of Canada declares all of Manitoba’s legislative documents to be invalid because they were adopted in English only

In order to avoid a legal vacuum, the Court grants the province a period during which the statutes will remain valid.
Franco-Manitoban flag

The first États généraux de la Société franco-manitobaine is held

The report, which was submitted in 1988, focused on the major concerns in seven sectors: education, services, culture-heritage-leisure, media, youth, economy and the Francophone community’s internal and external relations.
Government of Manitoba's logo

Manitoba develops its French Language Services Policy

The Policy is adopted 10 years after the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the province’s Official Language Act, which made English Manitoba’s sole official language, was unconstitutional.

The Supreme Court of Canada hears new questions regarding the scope of section 23 of the Manitoba Act, 1870

Following the 1985 Reference re Manitoba Language Rights, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that, pursuant to section 23 of the Manitoba Act, 1870, orders in council that are legislative in nature and certain documents incorporated by reference were to be in both official languages.

Manitoba amends Part III of the City of Winnipeg Act

Part III covers the delivery of municipal services in French.
Statue of Louis Riel in front of the Manitoba Legislature.

The House of Commons recognizes Louis Riel as a founder of Manitoba

A resolution is passed recognizing “the unique and historic role of Louis Riel . . . and his contribution in the development of Confederation.”
Sign of the Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada confirms the right to minority control over French-language facilities

The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that section 23(3)(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms includes both the right to a distinct setting for minority language education and the right of the official language minority to manage and control their educational facilities.

The Division scolaire franco-manitobaine begins operations

The Division scolaire franco-manitobaine was created when Bill 34 was passed in July 1993 to amend the Public Schools Act. The Commission scolaire franco-manitobaine was formed shortly thereafter.
Logo of the Conseil de développement économique du Manitoba

The Economic Development Council for Manitoba Bilingual Municipalities is founded

The CDEM is the driving force behind economic development in Manitoba’s 17 bilingual municipalities.
Judge Richard Chartier

A report is published on Manitoba’s French language services policy

The recommendations in the Chartier Report lead to the adoption of a new French Language Services Policy.
Banner of the Centre du patrimoine in Manitoba

The Centre du patrimoine officially opens in St. Boniface, Manitoba

The Centre is an archives and research centre.
Logo "bonjour hello" of the Government of Manitoba

Manitoba’s first Bilingual Service Centre opens in St. Boniface

The Centres are a direct result of the recommendations in the Chartier Report, Above All, Common Sense.
Accueil francophone's logo

Accueil francophone opens in Manitoba

The aim of the organization is to contribute to community development by welcoming French-speaking immigrants and helping them to settle in Manitoba.
Gabrielle-Roy House

Gabrielle Roy House opens in Manitoba

Gabrielle Roy’s childhood home is an important symbol that often appears in the author’s work.

The rural municipality of St. Laurent, Manitoba, receives international recognition for its authentic Métis culture

St. Laurent is recognized by the Smithsonian Institution and its National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C.
Logo of Santé en français – (Manitoba)

A French language health services network is created in Manitoba

The government of Manitoba names Santé en français as the Francophone community’s official representative for health and social services.
Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface in Winnipeg (Manitoba) in 2005

The Université de Saint-Boniface Act is adopted

Manitoba’s Université de Saint-Boniface gets new powers and privileges.
Government of Manitoba's logo

Manitoba adopts The Bilingual Service Centres Act

The French Language Services Policy is not backed with legislative guarantees.
World Trade Centre's logo

The World Trade Centre Winnipeg opens in Manitoba

The organization is a member of the World Trade Centers Association, a major international trade network representing 300 World Trade Centres in nearly 100 countries.
Canadian Museum for Human Rights

The Canadian Museum for Human Rights opens its doors

Located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, the Museum is the realization of a dream of the late Israel “Izzy” Asper following a long 14-year journey.