Archived - Notes for an address at the conference “From Pierre-Esprit Radisson to Louis Riel: voyageurs et Métis”

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Winnipeg, November 18, 2010
Graham Fraser - Commissioner of Official Languages

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Footnote 1

1 One of his biographers thinks he was born in or near Avignon, where his father was born, while others cite documents indicating he was born in Paris in 1636. See Grace Lee Nute, “Radisson, Pierre-Esprit,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa, vol. II, 2003, p. 1701–1740. (accessed November 1, 2010). See also Martin Fournier, Pierre-Esprit Radisson, Merchant Adventurer, Les éditions du Septentrion, Montréal, 2002, p. 17. Fournier cites Marcel Trudel, Histoire de la Nouvelle-France, vol. III, Fides, Montréal, 1983, and Radisson’s own account.

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Footnote 2

2 See Georges E. Sioui, Pour une histoire amérindienne de l’Amérique, Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec, 1999, for an explanation of this custom.

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Footnote 3

3 Martin Fournier, Merchant Adventurer, p. 35.

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Footnote 4

4 Martin Fournier, Merchant Adventurer, p. 111.

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Footnote 5

5 According to Martin Fournier, “By the time he reached about age 50, Radisson had already absorbed all his experiences with the Iroquois and the other Amerindians of the Great Lakes and Hudson’s Bay,” Fournier writes. “He was familiar with them; he was well acquainted with their values, and with their customs; and he was able to make his way almost as easily as they did in the North American environment. And yet it is quite clear that after his return to Europe, in 1665, Radisson became a full-fledged European in regard to the values and objectives that would count for him thenceforward.” Martin Fournier, Merchant Adventurer, p. 241.

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Footnote 6

6 Telegraph to Edgar Dewdney, August 17, 1885; Library and Archives Canada, Macdonald Papers Book 23; quoted by George G. F. Stanley, Louis Riel, The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1963, p. 361.

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Footnote 7

7 Frances Russell, The Canadian Crucible: Manitoba’s Role in Canada’s Great Divide, Heartland Associates, Winnipeg, 2003, p. 54.

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8 Douglas Owram, “The Myth of Louis Riel,“ Canadian Historical Review, 63, 3 (1982):
pp. 315–336.

Footnote 9

9 Bernard de Voto, in the introduction to Joseph Kinsey Howard’s Strange Empire, New York, 1952, p. 9–10; quoted by Douglas Owram, Myth, pp. 325–326.

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Footnote 10

10 Joseph Kinsey Howard, Op. cit., p. 133, quoted by Douglas Owram, Myth, p. 326.

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11 W.L. Morton, “The Bias of Prairie Politics,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada,
49 (June 1955): p. 57; quoted by Douglas Owram, Myth, p. 329.

Footnote 12

12 “. . . .the story of Riel is also a civics lesson of a peculiarly Canadian nature. The writings on him are both a reminder of the continuous frictions within Canadian life and of the delicate nature of the Canadian nation,” he writes. “Those who would forget the necessity for compromise within Canada, as the Canadian government did in 1869 or as Riel did in 1885, invite disaster.” Douglas Owram, Myth, p. 336.

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Footnote 13

13 Joseph Boyden, Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont, Penguin Canada, Toronto, 2010.

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Footnote 14

14 “Both the common law and the aboriginal perspective on land should be taken into account in establishing the proof of occupancy,” in Delgamuukw v. British Columbia, [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1010.

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Footnote 15

15 Graham Fraser, “Le prix de l’incohérence”, Le Devoir, October 7, 1999.

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Footnote 16

16 One of the first things Samuel de Champlain did was to send young Frenchmen, like Étienne Brûlé, to spend a year or two with the Aboriginals to learn their language and understand their culture.

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Footnote 17

17 Harold Innis, The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2001, p. 42.

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Footnote 18

18 George F.G. Stanley, The Birth of Western Canada: A History of the Riel Rebellions, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1992.

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19 David T. McNab, “A brief history of the denial of indigenous rights in Canada,” in Janet Miron,
A History of Human Rights in Canada: Essential Issues, Canadian Scholars' Press, Toronto, 2009, p. 105.

Footnote 20

20 Robert Cunningham, “Special Correspondence,” The Globe [Toronto], January 28, 1870; included in J.L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer, First Drafts: Eyewitness Accounts from Canada’s Past, Thomas Allen Publishers, Toronto, 2002, p. 88.

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Footnote 21

21 Georges E. Sioui, For an Amerindian Autohistory, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 1995, p. 52.

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Footnote 22

22 “[the Metis] system of land ownership was customary rather than the formal, deeded property rights of British Law.” Frances Russell, Canadian Crucible, p. 64.

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Footnote 23

23 Serge Bouchard, “Nos langues, nos mères, notre terre : les grandes oubliées de l’Histoire”, lecture given at the Ministerial Conference of La Francophonie in Canada in Yellowknife, June 22, 2010.

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Footnote 24

24 The Institute of Public Administration of Canada 62nd Annual Conference, Ottawa, August 24, 2010.

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